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By John R. Anderson

First released in 1976. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa corporation.

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Additional resources for Language, Memory, and Thought

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If the sentence was The plus is below the star, it would be encoded (plus below star) which is not congruent with the picture representation. Therefore, the picture code would have to be transformed to (plus below star). The two codes could then be compared and found identical, so a true response would be emitted. However, the subject was slowed because he had to transform the picture. In general, subjects were slower, as predicted, when the proposed code for the picture mismatched the proposed code for the sentence.

Clark provides a similar analysis of following instructions. " Clark proposes the subject represents the command as (blue truck ahead red truck) and his task as (blue truck at X). That is, he must determine X, or where to place the mobile blue truck. The variable X matches ahead red truck and the subject uses this information to determine the location of the blue truck. Note the subject would have considerable difficulty in responding if he were told "Make it so the red truck is ahead of the blue truck.

An argument is made from automata theory that it is not possible to determine uniquely the mental structures and processes underlying cognitive performances. This general thesis is illustrated with respect to two current issues in cognitive psychology. It is shown that it is not possible to decide whether processes are occurring in parallel or in serial. It is also not possible to decide uniquely the representation of information. It is argued that an ultimate goal of a cognitive theory is that it be capable of practical applications.

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