Download Ion-Selective Electrodes in Analytical Chemistry by Robert K. Kobos (auth.), Henry Freiser (eds.) PDF

By Robert K. Kobos (auth.), Henry Freiser (eds.)

We proceed during this moment quantity the plan obvious within the first; i.e., of offering a few well-rounded updated stories of vital advancements within the intriguing box of ion-selective electrodes in analytical chemistry. during this quantity, as well as the fascinating purposes of ISE'S to biochemistry structures represented by way of the outline of enzyme electrodes, there's featured the newest improvement in ISE'S, particularly, the becoming a member of of the electrochemical and good kingdom services, leading to CHEMFETS. The scholarly survey of the present prestige of ISE'S will surely be welcomed through all staff within the box. Tucson, Arizona Henry Freiser vii Contents bankruptcy 1 Potentiometric Enzyme tools Robert ok. Kobos 1. advent . . . . . . 1 2. Soluble Enzyme structures . . . five 2.1. Substrate Determinations five 2.2. Enzyme Determinations . thirteen 2.3. Inhibitor Determinations. 18 three. Immobilized Enzyme platforms . 19 3.1. equipment of Immobilization. 19 3.2. features of Immobilized Enzymes 23 3.3. Analytical functions with Ion-Selective Electrodes 23 four. Enzyme Electrodes 31 4.1. Urea Electrodes 35 4.2. Amygdalin Electrodes 39 4.3. Glucose Electrodes . forty 4.4. Penicillin Electrodes forty 4.5. Amino Acid Electrodes forty-one 4.6. Nucleotide Electrodes forty six 4.7. Uric Acid Electrode forty seven 4.8. Creatinine Electrode forty eight forty eight 4.9. Acetylcholine Electrodes. 4.10. D-Gluconate Electrode forty nine 4.11. Lactate Electrode forty nine 4.12. Inhibitor decision 50 4.13. Substrate Electrodes 50 4.14. present tendencies . . . .

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The ammonium ion produced via reaction (16) was detected by the cation electrode. Response was obtained between 1 x 10-4 and 5 x 10-2 M for the following amino acids: L-cysteine, L-Ieucine, L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, and L-methionine. The degree of response varied with the Robert K. Kobos 42 amino acid tested. The electrode was stable for two weeks and had a response time of 2 min. A general D-amino acid electrode was reported by Guilbault and Hrabankova. (176) The electrode was constructed using the enzyme D-amino acid oxidase in conjunction with a monovalent cation electrode.

1l8) The most popular type is the fixed-bed reactor in which the enzyme is attached to solid support particles, generally glass beads. The beads are then packed into a column. Another approach is the tubular enzyme reactor. In this configuration the enzyme is immobilized onto the walls of nylon tubing. This type of reactor is especially useful in air-segmented flow systems. (119) Immobilized enzyme reactors have been used in analytical systems with many types of detection including spectrophotometric, (120-122) thermal, (122-126) and electrochemical (127,128) detectors.

The response slope of the electrode was 55 mV /decade in the linear range 1 x 10-4 to 5 X 10-3 M. No loss of activity was noted over 200 assays. Better precision was obtained in the analysis of serum samples than with currently used spectrophotometric methods. Another important aspect of this work was the demonstration of the effect of the buffer capacity on the response of gas-sensor-based urea electrodes. 162) had reported super-Nernstian responses for these urea sensors. This unusual response was explained in this study as being due to an increase in pH in the enzyme layer, which affects the , NH3-NHt equilibrium, as a result of the enzymatic reaction.

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