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By John Crowe

This article takes the coed from the very fundamentals of electronic electronics to an advent of state of the art innovations utilized in the sector. it really is perfect for any engineering or technology pupil who needs to review the topic from its easy ideas in addition to serving as a consultant to extra complicated issues for readers already conversant in the topic. The assurance is adequately in-depth to permit the reader to growth easily onto larger point texts.

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The bubble on the output of the N O R gate indicates this second interpretation of the gate's operation since it signifies the output is 0 when either of the inputs is 1. Regarding positive and negative assertion level logic, a non-bubbled input or output indicates a 1 being input or output (positive level logic) whilst a 0 indicates a 0 being input or output (negative level logic). In the case of the NOR operator such assertion level logic indicates that Y is active-LOW (gives a 0) when either A OR B is active-HIGH (an input of 1).

01000 - 5 -00101 ~ +11011 +3 100011 The fifth bit is the sign bit (it is 0 for the binary codes of + 8 and + 5, but 1 (indicating a complemented number) f o r - 5). Since it is 0 in the answer this shows that the result is positive, with a binary value of 0011 = 3~0. The 'overflow' sixth bit in the result is discarded. 26 Subtract 8 from 5 using binary notation. Solution 5 00101 two's Comp. 00101 - 8 -01000 ~ +11000 -3 11101 Again, the fifth bit is the sign bit which since it is 1 indicates the result is negative.

Then letting A - X, B - Y, C - Z gives" x+(Y. z ) - ( x + ~9- (x+z) which has the same form as the second equation. 24 m What is the dual of Y= A. 4? Duality and gate equivalence 21 Solution The circuit to implement Y and its dual are shown in Fig. 16. This gives _ _ r : A + (A- 8) Using Boolean algebra: Y - A -(A + B) inverting both sides = A +(A + B) De Morgan's theorem = A + A 9B De Morgan's theorem Hence Y = A + A 9B as above. 211, as expected due to duality. AB. AT B A Fig. (B+C) and produce alternative representations of it using only a three-input A N D and three-input OR gate (assuming NOT gates are also available).

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