By Magdalena Kaufmann
Imperative clauses are famous as one of many significant clause varieties along these referred to as declarative and interrogative. however, they're nonetheless an enigma within the learn of which means, which is based principally on both the concept that of fact stipulations or the concept that of knowledge growth—neither of that are simply utilized to imperatives. This e-book places ahead a clean point of view. It analyzes imperatives by way of modalized propositions, and identifies an extra, presuppositional, which means part that makes an assertive interpretation beside the point. the writer exhibits how those components will help clarify the various results imperatives have, looking on their utilization context.
Imperatives were considered as elusive parts of language simply because they've got quite a number capabilities that makes them tricky to unify theoretically. This clean view of the semantics-pragmatics interface enables a uniform semantic research whereas accounting for the pragmatic versatility of imperatives.
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Additional resources for Interpreting Imperatives
As suggested by the name, what is commanded and what is permitted is considered information about the world just like ordinary, non-modalized facts. 5 Interestingly, the modelling of P ERMISSIONs proves intricate for both uniform and split representationalist frameworks. A particular problem resulting for split representationalist frameworks that employ a set of possible worlds as the permissibility sphere is introduced by Lewis (1979b) as ‘a problem about permission’. Assuming duality between what is permissible and what is commanded,6,7 split representationalist frameworks mostly only store what is commanded.
Grice, 1975b, for extensive discussion of all kinds of pathological cases concerning this condition, and a precise notion of the principle). For our particular concerns, this difference does not play a crucial role, and I will ignore it in the following. g. the propositional content of Thanks! can be ‘that you showed me the way’. 4 The Framework 25 condition. g. ‘counts as an attempt to get c A to do A’ (R EQUEST)), so it also tells us what will be the consequence of the act if it does not misfire.
Speech act types other than the prototypical one can appear at best in addition, in the case of indirect speech acts. Gazdar (1981:74f) argues convincingly that this runs into various kinds of problems. Similarly, I also argued above that declaratives can be associated with speech act types other than A SSERTION, and that imperatives can be associated with speech act types other than O RDER (or, R EQUEST as considered prototypical in the literal meaning hypothesis), without there being any evidence of indirectness.
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