By Gerard Parke, Nigel Hewson
The absolutely revised, restructured and up to date moment version of the ICE guide of Bridge Engineering has been written and edited by means of a crew of prime specialists and offers useful contributions from around the box inside a unmarried source. the second one version comprehensively addresses key subject inside bridge engineering, from background and aesthetics to layout, development and upkeep concerns.
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Extra resources for ICE Manual of Bridge Engineering, Second Edition
In the USA wind pressures are found in AASHTO LRFD (1996, 3rd edition). Cable-supported bridges such as cable-stayed and suspension bridges are subject to vibrations induced by varying wind loads on the bridge deck. The total wind load on the deck is given by Dyrbe and Hansen (1996) as: Ftot ¼ Fq þ Ft þ Fm ð17Þ where Fq is the time-averaged mean wind load, Ft is the ﬂuctuating wind load due to air turbulence (buﬀeting) and Fm is the motion-induced wind load. Long bridges The main eﬀects on long, light bridges (such as cable-stayed or suspension) are: n vortex excitation n galloping and stall hysteresis n classical ﬂutter.
Shrinkage Shrinkage stresses are induced in all concrete bridges whether they consist of precast elements or constructed in situ. Generally the stresses are low and are considered insigniﬁcant in most cases. However, where a concrete deck is cast in situ onto a prefabricated member (be it steel or concrete) then shrinkage stresses can be signiﬁcant. Figure 18 illustrates how shrinkage of the in-situ concrete deck aﬀects the composite section. g. g. 3 Table 3 Shrinkage strains and creep reduction factors Figure 18 Effect of deck slab shrinkage on composite section total long-term strain "0c ¼ ð1 þ Þ"c ¼ ð1 þ Þ fcc =Ec Shrinkage produces compression in the top region of the precast concrete beam.
An example is provided to illustrate the use of the several equations and is reproduced in Figure 33. Construction loads Temporary forces occur in the construction at each stage of construction due to the self-weight of plant, equipment and the method of construction. Generally these forces are more signiﬁcant in bridges built by the method of serial construction such as post-tensioned concrete box girders where long unsupported cantilever sections induce forces which are substantially diﬀerent than those in the completed bridge both in magnitude and distribution.
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