By Bruce M. Rothschild
As medical research of testable hypotheses has changed the speculative method of examine of bone ailment in fresh and fossil amphibians and reptiles, the sphere has complex from easily reporting observations to studying their implications. This procedure relies upon a reproducible information base which explains/diagnoses the character of bony changes and a safe assessment of the literature. Thereby hangs the rub. The herpetological literature are tough to entry (let by myself learn) and are scattered via many sought after and eclectic journals and within the lay literature. whereas older diagnoses usually haven't stood the try of time, the readability of record descriptions frequently permits convinced id of the underlying pathology.
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Additional info for Herpetological Osteopathology: Annotated Bibliography of Amphibians and Reptiles
Duplication of the head and forelimbs (Anonymous 1931) has been reported in redeared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans (Anonymous 2007a, b; Chapple 1999), northern painted turtle, Chrysemys picta (Bishop 1908), Carolina diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin centrata (Hildebrand 1938), and in the 37 Greek tortoise, Testudo graeca ibera (Caullery 1931). Hildebrand (1938) reported a diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin centrata, with two heads, two tails, and rudimentary fifth leg, and Brogard (1987) a bifid tail in Malaclemys.
These include fractures and exostoses (Figs. 69–71). The latter are found Fig. 68 Malignment of teeth; dorsal view of mandible of Pseudosuchia Fig. 69 Healed second metatarsal; dorsal view of hindfoot of Crocodylus clarus (NMNH 12719) Fig. 70 Fractured neural spines; lateral view of Permian Dimetrodon grandis (NMNH 8635) Fig. 71 Lateral view of Permian Dimetrodon grandis (NMNH 8635) spinous processes. Healed fracture with callus formation especially on lower jaws, vertebrae (especially caudal), and paddles (especially digits).
Smith (1947) suggested that humps occur if costal plates ankylose (form a close connection up to fusion) early. Hunchback or kyphosis deformity (see also Table 8) takes two forms: (1) the more common deformed, raised plate, allegedly due to excess dietary protein (McArthur 1996; Rosskopf 1986), or (2) thick, porous, raised plates from renal osteodystrophy/nutritional osteodystrophy (Highfield 1990a, b; Jackson 1987; Scott 1992) or calcium deficiency (Rosskopf 1986; White 1989). Cagle (1950) related the deformity in the Cumberland slider, Trachemys scripta troostii, to an abnormal large yolk mass causing distension of carapace.
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