Download Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas by Saeid Mokhatab PDF

By Saeid Mokhatab

Liquefied ordinary fuel (LNG) is a commercially beautiful section of the commodity that allows the effective dealing with and transportation of usual gasoline world wide. The LNG undefined, utilizing applied sciences confirmed over many years of improvement, maintains to extend its markets, diversify its provide chains and elevate its percentage of the worldwide usual fuel alternate. The Handbook of Liquefied typical Gas is a well timed ebook because the is at the moment constructing new huge resources of offer and the applied sciences have advanced lately to permit offshore infrastructure to improve and deal with assets in additional distant and harsher environments. it's the basically e-book of its sort, protecting the numerous facets of the LNG provide chain from liquefaction to regasification by way of addressing the LNG industries' basics and markets, in addition to distinct engineering and layout ideas. a special, well-documented, and forward-thinking paintings, this reference publication offers a great platform for scientists, engineers, and different execs considering the LNG to achieve a greater figuring out of the most important simple and complicated subject matters proper to LNG initiatives in operation and/or in making plans and improvement.

  • Highlights the advancements within the typical fuel liquefaction industries and the demanding situations in assembly environmental rules
  • Provides guidance in using the total capability of LNG assets
  • Offers advices on LNG plant layout and operation in accordance with confirmed practices and layout experience
  • Emphasizes know-how choice and innovation with specialise in a ''fit-for-purpose” layout
  • Updates code and legislation, protection, and safety necessities for LNG applications

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Extra resources for Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas

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There are potential fuel savings by operating with a low seawater temperature in very cold climate regions. This application has to be evaluated with the increase in investment of the additional equipment and operation requirement. 5% of the total vaporized LNG as fuel, which adds a significant operating cost to the terminals. For this reason, SCVs are used only where no other free heat source is available. The SCVs can also be designed to utilize boil-off gas. In a submerged combustion vaporizer (SCV), LNG flows through a tube coil fabricated from stainless steel that is submerged in a water bath (Figures 1-37 and 1-38).

Note that T1 is actually the average vaporization temperature of LNG, which ranges from –250 F to ambient temperature. Because of the extremely low temperature of LNG, even with a low-level heat such as seawater or turbine exhaust, significant power can be generated using the Rankine cycle concept. In simple terms, the power cycle generation efficiency can be increased almost proportionally to the temperature difference between the heat source (hot side) and the heat sink (cold side). The Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) operating principal is illustrated in a temperature-entropy (T-S) diagram (Figure 1-44).

The NGL recovery process can be designed to utilize the cold energy from LNG vaporization to provide reflux in fractionation, and is very energy efficient (Mak, 2008). , 2007). For LNG that has very high ethane content, and where there is no market for ethane product, an interesting option is using the Catalytic De-Richment (CDR) process (by Johnson Matthey catalysts), which can convert the higher hydrocarbons into methane. The CDR process was originally developed to produce pipeline gas from naphtha, based on steam reforming, CO shifting, and the methanation process to produce methane.

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