Download Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol 1: Lower Metazoans by Michael Hutchins (ed.) PDF

By Michael Hutchins (ed.)

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Extra resources for Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol 1: Lower Metazoans and Lesser Deuterostomes

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Tions of epipelagic species, are at least in part active responses to changing light levels. Epipelagic refers to the upper levels of the ocean that are penetrated by enough sunlight for photosynthesis to occur. Aurelia aurita approaches the surface during the day, at both midday and midnight, or only at night, and becomes scattered throughout the water column at night or during the sunlit days. Diel migrations probably do not occur in the bathypelagic zone (about 3,280–6,562 ft or 1–2 km); migration in the mesopelagic zone (about 656–3,280 ft or 200–1,000 m) depends on the levels of available light in that zone.

Sponges are perhaps the most efficient phylum in the animal kingdom for asexual reproduction. They employ a number of different strategies ranging from simple fragmentation of the adult body to formation of specialized gemmules (reproductive buds), the latter being more common in the overwintering stages of freshwater species. Phylum Cnidaria Sexual reproduction is well developed throughout the phylum. Gonochoristic and hermaphroditic species are known to occur; however, the true jellyfishes (class Scyphozoa) and colonial hydroids (class Hydrozoa) are primarily gonochoristic.

Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1987. Wilson, W. , Stephen A. Sticker, and George L. Shinn, eds. Reproduction and Development of Marine Invertebrates. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. , M. A. Sewell, and Mary E. Rice, eds. Atlas of Marine Invertebrate Larvae. San Diego: Academic Press, 2002. Periodicals Fautin, Daphne Gail. ” Canadian Journal of Zoology 80 (2002): 1735–1754. , and Bernard M. Degnan. ” Invertebrate Biology 121 (2002): 171–189. , and Marco Ferraguti. ” Invertebrate Biology 121 (2002): 91–94.

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