Download Fundamentals of Learning and Memory by John P. Houston PDF

By John P. Houston

Publisher: Harcourt Publishers workforce (Australia) Pty.LtdPublication date: December 31, 1986Language: EnglishProduct Dimensions: 9.3 x 6.3 x 1.2 inchesShipping Weight: 1.8 poundsBook length: 452ISBN-10: 0155294504ISBN-13: 978-0155294509

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F o r e x a m p l e , in d e l a y e d e y e l i d c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e CR m a y b e g i n a f t e r t h e o n s e t of t h e C S b u t b e f o r e U C S o n s e t . It is as t h o u g h t h e CR is p r e p a r i n g t h e a n i m a l f o r t h e U C S (air p u f f ) . O n e w a y t o t h i n k a b o u t it is t h a t t h e C R m a y a c t u a l l y a l l o w t h e a n i m a l p a r t i a l l y to a v o i d t h e n o x i o u s air puff. These two views, the preparatory and the c o m p o n e n t positions, are not m u t u a l l y exclusive.

C o n d i t i o n i n g of Planaria A n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g i n v o l v e s planaria. These s m a l l , s i m p l e , f r e s h w a t e r f l a t w o r m s s e e m c a p a b l e of a c q u i r i n g c o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e s . T h o m p s o n a n d M c C o n n e l l (1955) p l a c e d t h e s e c r e a t u r e s in d i s h e s o f w a t e r . T h e n , at t h e s a m e t i m e t h e y s h o c k e d t h e a n i m a l s by p a s s i n g e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r , t h e y c h a n g e d t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n in t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n (CS).

D u r i n g t h e s e r i e s of t r i a l s w h e n t h e U C S is b e i n g presented, our newly discovered CS (change f r o m no stimulation to s t i m u l a t i o n ) is p r e s e n t . It is " p a i r e d " w i t h t h e a i r p u f f . T h e n , w h e n t h e b e l l a l o n e is p r e s e n t e d , o u r s u b t l e C S ( c h a n g e f r o m n o s t i m u l a t i o n t o s t i m u l a t i o n ) is a l s o p r e s e n t (see W i c k e n s & W i c k e n s , 1 9 4 2 ) . T h u s , p s e u d o c o n d i t i o n i n g m a y a c t u a l l y be t r u e c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g in w h i c h t h e C S is a s u b t l e e n e r g y c h a n g e .

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