By Louis Tan Tai. Ho
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Additional info for Formulating Detergents and Personal Care Products: A Guide to Product Development
However, it should be noted that the effect of electrolytes on the formation of micelles operates only with nonionics with 4 5 ethylene oxides (19). , everything that can reduce the CMC (hydrophobic chain, electrolytes) increases the number and size of micelles and for that same reason increases solubilization. Adsorption has the effect of changing properties at the interface, particularly a reduction of interfacial tension, which translates into an increase in the wetting properties of the surfactant solution.
In fact, it is removed by surfactants that penetrate tiny splits or cracks in the solids, breaking them up into fine particles that are subsequently dispersed into the detergent solution. Scott (25) proved this mechanism by showing that there is a high degree of retention of surfactants in solid tripalmitin. The break-up of solid aggregates can also be observed under the microscope. If we place a fragment of solid triglyceride onto an alkaline detergent solution, we observe that the solid is broken into a cloud of fine particles.
Among anionics, LAS is the most sensitive to the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ions in water. If the quantity of builders is insufficient, calcium LAS precipitates, which reduces the concentration of surfactant and reduces detergency. 6 g L (4). PAS, LES, a-olefinsulfonate (AOS) and methyl ester sulfonates (MES) are less sensitive to Ca2+andMg2+ions than LAS (5,6). This is also true for nonionics. 2 g/L, which is almost the same as the CMC of this particular nonionic. Is it better to use one surfactant or a combination?
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