Download Formation of the Turkish Nation-State, 1920–1938 by Yesim Bayar PDF

By Yesim Bayar

This e-book is a old sociological exam of the formula and institutionalization of Turkish nationhood through the early Republic (1920-1938). concentrating on the language, schooling, and citizenship rules complex through the interval, it appears to be like at how the Republican elite located varied ethnic, linguistic, and spiritual groups.

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All through the Kemalist era one of the largest occupational categories was the military. 8 percent of deputies had a military background. : 190). Bureaucrats and educators also had signicant levels of representation. : 190). Similarly, bureaucrats and those with a law background had a considerable presence. : 190). 8 percent of the First Assembly, consistently declined over the period under analysis. : 190). 17 As regards the geographical backgrounds of the deputies, those who were born in the former Balkan provinces of the Ottoman Empire formed a signic ant group.

Parallel to the Citizenship Law, the relationship of Ottoman subjects to the sultanate was not de ned along religious lines. Rather, all subjects (irrespective of their ethnicity, religion or creed) who lived within the territories of the empire were declared to be Ottomans (Aybay 1991). The constitution further stipulated that the sultan was the center and head of the constitutional system, and held the right to appoint members of parliament. He could also dissolve the parliament if he saw t. Thus, the sultan was not bound by the Constitution; the Constitution was bound by his will (Berkes 1998 [ 1964] : 246).

228–229). 14 However, the existing works do give us Th e O t to m a n E m p i re 33 invaluable information on the general contours of the Assembly. A quic k glance at the political elite during the r st three decades of the republic (1920–1939) exhibits some more or less consistent characteristics. It should be mentioned at the outset that the early republican elite were Muslim and male. Non-Muslims and women would only be able to enter Parliament in the 1930s and even then, they would compose a negligible part of the parliamentary body (Frey 1965: 154; Bali 2004).

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