Download Formal Semantics and Pragmatics for Natural Language by James Clifford PDF

By James Clifford

This e-book discusses the relationship among components of semantics, particularly the semantics of databases and the semantics of average language, and hyperlinks them through a typical view of the semantics of time. it truly is argued coherent thought of the semantics of time is an important element for the luck of efforts to include extra 'real international' semantics into database versions. this concept is a comparatively contemporary situation of database study however it is receiving growing to be curiosity. The booklet starts off with a dialogue of database querying which motivates using the paradigm of Montague Semantics and discusses the main points of the intensional good judgment ILs. this can be by way of an outline of the author's personal version, the historic Relational information version (HRDM) which extends the RDM to incorporate a temporal measurement. ultimately the database querying language QEHIII is outlined and examples illustrate its use. a proper version for the translation of questions is gifted during this paintings that allows you to shape the root for a lot additional examine.

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Additional info for Formal Semantics and Pragmatics for Natural Language Querying

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Only one relationship is allowed among (between) the same entity sets. That is, it is not permitted to have more than one historical relationship relation whose object key is K\... Kn. 5. l there must exist in the relation rt- corresponding to K{ a tuple t' such that t'(Ki(s)) = t(Ki)(s). 6. A role attribute A can appear as a role attribute in at most one relation. /, there must be a t' in r2 with t(A)(s) = t(K)(s). Intensional Logic and HRDM Model Both of these inter-relational constraints ensure that if an entity k participates in a relationship or fills a role in a state s, then the existence of k in state s must be predicated in the entity relation for A;.

Thus we see that the interpretation rules give the expected meaning to EMP(86) in the given model, viz. the set of individuals who are EMPloyees in 1986. Consider now the expression EMP(86)(Elsie)(86), of type t. The denotation of this expression is computed by applying the set {Peter,Liz}. , Elsie is not an EMPloyee in 1986. Now, suppose we wanted to form an expression whose denotation was a function from times to those individuals who were not the boss at those times. Such an expression will be of the same type as the constant EMP, viz.

The database was seen as a three-dimensional cube, wherein at any time t a tuple with EXISTS? = True was considered to be meaningful, otherwise it was to be ignored. g. [Ben82,Lum84,Sno84,ABM84]) continued to examine more succinct or perspicuous representations along this tuplebased line. [Cli82b] was the first to suggest incorporating the temporal dimension at the attribute level. 1: Relation emprel on Scheme EMPREL the model proposed in [GV85]. , the notion of tuple homogeneity in [GV85]), and finally with each attribute value.

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