By Nicos Poulantzas
Poulantzas’s ebook is the 1st significant Marxist learn of German and Italian fascism to seem because the moment international struggle. It rigorously distinguishes among fascism as a mass circulate earlier than the seizure of energy and fascism as an entrenched equipment of dictatorship. It compares the certain classification parts of the counter-revolutionary blocs mobilzed by way of fascism in Germany and Italy; analyses the altering kin among the petty bourgeoisie and large capital within the evolution of fascism; discusses the constructions of the fascist country itself, as an emergency regime for the security of capital; and gives a sustained and documented feedback of legitimate Comintern attitudes and regulations in the direction of fascism within the fateful years after the Versailles cost. Fascism and Dictatorship represents a tough synthesis of authentic proof and conceptual research that has been infrequent in Marxist political concept up to now.
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Additional resources for Fascism and Dictatorship: The Third International and the Problem of Fascism
But the weakness of the Italian link did not stem from such ‘backward ness’. This was in fact noted by the famous Comintern economist Eugen Varga, who posed the problem of imperialism quite accurately, in his own terms: ‘The development of Italian capitalism has shown some very interesting features in the last ten years. Italy is the greatest European power to embark so late upon modem capitalist development, but it has in a verjjh o rt time taken on an exceptional imperialist character. . The second peculiarity in the development of capitalism in Italy lies in the fact that the dictatorship of the bourgeois has there assumed the particular form of fascism.
6 I I . TH A LH EIM ER , GRAMSCI, TROTSKY To direct our ideas, there are, in making this kind of examination of fascism, two distinct but related conceptions which are of use to us: that of August Thalheimer and Antonio Gramsci. In addition we have that of T rotsky. The first two are related, in that they both follow from certain analyses by Marx and Engels, developed by Lenin. They are chiefly concerned with a form of State which has as its essential characteristic a particular when the *relative tffrfQwom^fromthedominantcl^^ two mam^cfa^rorces’T rH^social formation ire^me^utf^rium\ These analyses were applied concretely to theTaseoHli^ ^ m u ttsT ^ tate (equi librium between the bourgeoisie and the landed nobility) and to Bona~ advanced example of the classical type of fascist development to be found among the imperialist countries’, a position confirmed by Kuusinen.
The real problem is the interpretation made of the crisis. When it had passed, the Eleventh Plenum of the Comintern (1931) clearly confirmed this line: ‘The year which has gone by since the last Plenum in February 1930, has been a year of historic change and has seen the deepening of the economic crisis, confirming the inevitability of the destruction of the capitalist system, the development of the socialist offensive . . , and the end of stabiliza tion’ (in H. Weber, Die Kommunistische Internationale, collection of Comintern texts, Frankfurt, 1966, p.
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