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By Richard Jason Whitt

Evidentiality, the linguistic encoding of a speaker’s or writer’s facts for an asserted proposition, has all started to obtain severe consciousness from linguists in basic terms within the final zone century. a lot of this awareness has concerned with languages that encode evidentiality within the grammar, whereas less curiosity has been proven in languages that specific evidentiality via potential except inflectional morphology. In English and German, for example, the verbs of notion - these verbs denoting sight, sound, contact, scent, and style - are top vendors of evidential that means. This examine surveys the main favorite of the conception verbs in English and German throughout all 5 sensory modalities and debts for the variety of evidential meanings by way of reading the overall polysemy came upon between belief verbs, in addition to the categorical complementation styles during which those verbs ensue

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Extra resources for Evidentiality and Perception Verbs in English and German

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When an infinitive or present participle is used, the focus is on the action at hand, although the English present participle contributes a progressive aspectual flavoring, while the infinitive signals perfectivity. But when a past participle is used (as in (47)), the focus is more on a present state resulting from a previous action (resultative meaning). e. the speaker was the patient, not the agent, of whatever action has been done. This complementation pattern can be found only with subject-oriented perception verbs.

To return to (68) and (69), for example, (68) could be considered an intersubjective assessment of the floor’s condition because the impersonal sentence structure – the presence of the grammatical subject it – signals that this condition is perceivable or has been perceived by people other than the speaker, all of whom could make this evidential assessment (Nuyts 2001: 270, 307; Verhagen 2005: 133). 14 More broadly, how to determine whether evidence is subjective or intersubjective is best explicated by Nuyts (2001: 34): ‘does the speaker suggest that (s)he alone knows the evidence and draws 14 I find this analysis problematic, especially as it relates to perception verbs and the purported availability of evidence to a larger speech community.

Words), 551,000 of them coming from the Early Modern section. Each section contains a broad variety of text types. The Early Modern section is subdivided into three parts: 1500–1570 (190,160 tokens), 1570–1640 (189,800 tokens), and 1640–1710 (171,040 tokens). This distinction will not be made here, however; the entire Early Modern English section will be treated as a unified whole. Citations from the Helsinki text will include the file name, author, title, date (or date range where exact date is unavailable), and page number.

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