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By Shyama P Sinha

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10(a). 2 × 10−2 cm−1 at T = 21 0 C. 10(b)) comes out. 9 × 10−2 cm−1 at the central frequency. 4% due to the induced atomic coherence created by the coupling field. 10(b) with only the coupling field Rabi frequency as a fitting parameter. 10(b) the coupling Rabi frequency is estimated to be ΩC = 92 MHz, which is much smaller than the Doppler width in this system. This clearly brings out the advantage of using two-photon Doppler-free configuration in such EIT system. The prime reason for the limited absorption reduction (EIT) in this three-level atomic system in the ladder-type configuration is due to the high dephasing rate γ31 and the relatively broad free-running linewidths of the diode lasers used in the experiment [4,24].

Optical cavity works on the principle of interference between light beams confined in the cavity forming standing waves. Only at certain resonance frequencies the interference will be constructive, while the other frequencies are suppressed due to the destructive interferences of light waves. The style of standing waves so produced are called modes of the cavity or more precisely the eigen modes of the resonator. There are longitudinal and transverse modes formation in the optical resonator. Two longitudinal modes of a resonator have different frequencies but two transverse modes will also differ in the intensity distribution of light in transverse direction or across the cross-sectional area of the light beam.

11(b)). 55). Such modified dispersive properties of the three-level atomic medium for the probe laser beam was first measured using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the same atomic system used above for demonstrating EIT [25]. The small phase shift β(ω)L for the probe beam introduced by the atoms in the atomic vapor cell was detected through a setup called homodyne detection system. 2 1 Pumping power (20 mW) Fig. 11 Absorption coefficient α as a function of coupling (pumping) beam power for (a) ∆C = ∆P = 0 and (b) ∆C = −550 MHz and ∆P ∼ 550 MHz (the two-photon absorption peak is slightly shifted from ∆P = −∆C ).

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