By Stephen Woolcock
The ecu Union is a key participant in overseas monetary family, yet its precise position and the way it is going approximately making judgements and negotiating is frequently poorly understood inside of and particularly outdoors the european. while does the european play a proactive function and whilst does it stick with? while is the european a unique actor and while is it only one point in a multi- point strategy of negotiation during which the member states are the most actors? Does the ecu own normative strength in exterior financial relatives? Does the ecu have the aptitude and willingness to exploit its nonetheless major monetary energy? ''European Union fiscal Diplomacy'' offers the 1st accomplished research of the standards that ensure the position of the european in financial international relations. In an updated therapy that incorporates attention of the effect of the Treaty of Lisbon, it features a finished rationalization of choice making and negotiating methods within the center components of alternate, monetary industry law, environmental international relations and improvement co-operation. The booklet is meant for these attracted to european coverage making, but in addition those that easily have to know how the ecu services within the box of financial international relations
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Additional resources for European Union economic diplomacy : the role of the EU in external economic relations
The picture with regard to formal competence is therefore far from clear cut. In all policy areas, including trade there has been a good deal of shared competence. Even where there is exclusive EU competence in a policy area, linkages with other policy areas coming under member state competence are usually necessary for effective policies or as a result of the nature of the international agenda. 8 It has been argued that an important determinate of EU ‘actorness’ is whether it has cohesion in decision-making and that one measure of such cohesion is whether there are institutional rules of the game (Jupille and Caparoso, 1988).
So negotiators are nearly always in the business of trading concessions. This requires of course some flexibility to accept an outcome that is less than the optimal for one sector interest or group even if the overall benefits for the EU are greater (Odell, 2000). In the case of the EU, negotiations cannot practically be carried out by all 27 member states, so agents are designated by the Council to negotiate. Flexibility to enable value12 For example, EU negotiators can argue that they are unable to make any concessions because of opposition from the Council or European Parliament and thus bring pressure on a negotiating partner that stands to gain from an agreement.
Member states retain development policies parallel to those of the EU, in part because they see development aid as a key instrument in their foreign policy vis-à-vis developing countries. So compared to trade and environment policies where foreign policy issues are more remote, there has been less coordination and convergence in EU development policy. Fiscal policy is another area in which member states are keen to retain national sovereignty/competence, so that any linkage between EU economic diplomacy and tax or fiscal policy will mean member state resistance to developing common EU positions.
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