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Extra info for Encyclopedia of World Cultures Southeast and East Asia: Soviet Union, China and Eastern Europe, Vol. 5

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The Agta of Northeastern Luzon: Recent Studies. Cebu City: San Carlos Publications. Headland, Thomas N. (1986). Why Foragers Do Not Become Farmers: A Historical Study of a Changing Ecosystem and Its Effect on a Negrito Hunter-Gatherer Group in the Philippines. : University Microfilms International. Headland, Thomas N. (1987). " Ethnology 26: 261-280. Headland, Thomas N. (1988). " Tropical Ecology 29:121-135. Headland, Thomas N. (1989). " American Journal of Human Biology 1:59-72. Peterson, Jean T.

In contrast, on Hokkaid6, permanent settlements were located along the rivers, which were rich in fish from mouth to source-an unusual situation for hunter-gatherers. Most Ainu settlements, regardless of region, were small, usually consisting of fewer than five families. An exception was the Hidaka-Tokachi District on Hokkaid6, which enjoyed the most abundant natural resources and the densest population of all the Ainu lands. Here, especially along the Saru River, a few settlements housed about thirty families, and more than half the settlements in the valley exceeded five families.

The Japanese were encouraged to emigrate to Hokkaid6 to take advantage of the natural resources. Most significant, the new government issued the Hokkaid6 Aboriginal Protection Act. The Ainu on Hokkaid6 were forced to attend Japanese schools established by the government and to register in the Japanese census. Beginning in 1883, the Ainu were granted plots of land and encouraged to take up agriculture. They were removed from their settlements and resettled on land more suited to agriculture, causing drastic changes in Ainu society and culture.

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