Download Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire by Gabor Agoston, Bruce Masters PDF

By Gabor Agoston, Bruce Masters

As soon as stretching from Vienna within the north to Iraq and Yemen within the south, the Ottoman Empire has performed an quintessential function within the heritage of Eurasia and the center East. The dynamics and complexity of the present-day center East and Balkans can't be understood with no an exam of the background of the Ottoman Empire that governed those areas for hundreds of years. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire presents a radical review of the heritage and civilization of the Ottomans, with greater than four hundred A-to-Z entries targeting significant occasions, personalities, associations, and phrases. With signed articles via specialists within the box, this accomplished one-volume source additionally contains crucial information about imperialism and the rising Balkan, Arab, and Turkish nationalism; the loss of life of the empire; and Ottoman legacy within the Balkans and the center East. extra readings, nearly eighty five black-and-white images and maps, cross-references, a chronology, word list, bibliography, and an index supplement the textual content and provides readers an in-depth knowing of the vast and interesting heritage of the Ottoman Empire.

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1876) (r. 1861–1876) Ottoman sultan and caliph, ruled during second phase of the Tanzimat Abdülaziz was the son of sultan Mahmud II (r. 1808–39) and Pertevniyal Valide Sultan. He was born on February 8, 1830, in Istanbul and came to the throne upon the death of his elder brother, Sultan Abdülmecid (r. 1839–61) on June 25, 1861. He ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1861 until shortly before his death in 1876. One of his 13 children, Abdülmecid, became the last Ottoman caliph (1922–24), but he never ruled as sultan.

Despite disagreement over foreign policy, the necessity for military reforms along the Western model was universally recognized. Halil Hamid Pasha paid special attention to strengthening the Ottoman fortresses along the Russian frontier and in the Caucasus and worked with the French military mission to strengthen fortresses along the Turkish Straits (Bosporus and Dardanelles) and the Gallipoli Peninsula. Halil Hamid Pasha also undertook the modernization of the technical branches of the Ottoman army such as the Corps of Cannoneers, Corps of Bombardiers, and Corps of Miners, and enlarged the Corps of Rapid-fire Artillerymen organized by Baron de Tott in 1772.

He was taken to France and lived there under minimum-security house arrest until 1852. In France, he observed and appreciated the material progress the West was making due to their embrace of scientific rationalism, but he was also drawn further into the study of the writings of ibn al-Arabi, the great 13thcentury Sufi intellectual. When he was released from house arrest Abd alQadir went first to Istanbul, then traveled throughout the Ottoman Empire. He finally settled in Damascus in 1855. Abd al-Qadir brought with him a fairly large group of Algerian exiles, and he established an intellectual salon in his home where Muslim scholars could meet and discuss various Sufi texts.

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