Download Encyclopedia of Prehistory: Volume 1: Africa by Sibel Barut Kusimba, Fred H. Smith (auth.), Peter N. PDF

By Sibel Barut Kusimba, Fred H. Smith (auth.), Peter N. Peregrine, Melvin Ember (eds.)

The Encyclopedia of Prehistory represents additionally outlined by way of a a little bit diverse set of an try and supply simple details sociocultural features than are eth­ on all archaeologically identified cultures, nological cultures. significant traditions are overlaying the total globe and the whole outlined in accordance with universal subsistence prehistory of humankind. it's designed as practices, sociopolitical association, and a device to aid in doing comparative fabric industries, yet language, ideology, study at the peoples of the prior. so much and kinship ties play very little half in of the entries are written by means of the world's their definition simply because they're nearly most well known specialists at the specific parts unrecoverable from archaeological con­ and time classes. texts. against this, language, ideology, and The Encyclopedia is geared up accord­ kinship ties are relevant to defining ethno­ ing to significant traditions. a huge culture logical cultures. is outlined as a bunch of populations sharing There are 3 kinds of entries within the comparable subsistence practices, know-how, Encyclopedia: the key culture access, and different types of sociopolitical association, the local sub culture access, and the that are spatially contiguous over a rela­ website access. every one comprises kinds of tively huge region and which suffer pace­ info, and every is meant to be rally for a comparatively lengthy interval. minimum utilized in a unique way.

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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Prehistory: Volume 1: Africa

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R. S. Coruccini and R. L. Ciochon. : Prentice Hall, 451-470. Freeman, Leslie G. (1994). " In Integrative Paths to the Past, ed. R. S. Coruccini and R. L. Ciochon. : Prentice Hall, 597-637. Klein, Richard G. (1987). " In The Evolution of Human Hunting, ed. M. Nitecki and D. Nitecki. New York: Plenum, 11-43. Roebroeks, Wil, and Thijs van Kolfschoten (1994). " Antiquity 68: 489-503. Rolland, Nicholas (1992). " Trabajos de Prehistoria 49: 69-111. Svoboda, Jiri (1989). " Journal of World Prehistory 3: 33-70.

The high proportion of denticulate tools may be related to woodworking. Economy Acheulean people were gatherers of wild plants and scavengers or hunters of animal foods. Whether the meat in their diet was procured through hunting or scavenging has been the subject of numerous taphonomic studies, which have yielded equivocal results. Many Acheulean sites evidence the butchery of one or several large and small animals, such as at Torralba and Ambrona in North-Central Spain. Here, fauna, especially elephant and horse, was butchered at the bottom of a swampy valley.

At Terra Amata, an elephant leg bone had a hammered point at one end; another bone had a fire-hardened tip, and a third bone fragment had been smoothed by wear on one end. Flaked bone was also found. At Bilzingsleben, polished wooden tools include deliberate scratched designs. Torralba and Ambrona butchery sites also contain large amounts of flaked and polished bone tools and carved and modified wooden spears and clubs. , contains wooden spears that were designed specifically for throwing. Gesher Benot Ya'aqov in Israel and Kalambo Falls in northern Zambia, both waterlogged in their lower levels, have wooden spears and clubs, as well as a polished wooden plank at the Israeli site.

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