Download Elsevier's Integrated Neuroscience by John Nolte PDF

By John Nolte

Access point neuroscience textbook (241 pages - very large variety of matters yet brief compared to claim, Kandel's 1760 pages rules of Neural Sciences).

It is a neater learn than different textbooks, and the illustrations are uncomplicated yet necessary. there's a scientific part in addition.

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However, because gap junctions are good at spreading electrical signals through networks of interconnected neurons, they can be effective in helping synchronize the activity of groups of neurons (in the minority of situations where this is functionally desirable). In addition, some networks of neurons are specialized to simply spread signals laterally over substantial distances, adding to them here and there; coupling by gap junctions allows them to function as an electrical syncytium. For example, retinal horizontal cells (see Chapter 12) are electrically coupled, allowing information about illumination in one part of the retina to spread to other parts.

Some contain normally open Na+ channels, so an increased Na+ concentration resulting from chewing salty foods causes a depolarizing influx of Na+ ions. Ionotropic Mechanisms Some taste receptor cells have the ultimately simple ionotropic transduction mechanism, not even requiring a receptor (Fig. 4-3): increases in extracellular Na+ concentration resulting from salty foods cause a depolarizing current flow through open Na+ channels, moving the membrane potential toward a level predicted by the Goldman equation TABLE 4-3.

Because of the direct coupling between transmitter binding and permeability changes, the postsynaptic potential mediated by an ionotropic receptor is usually relatively rapid (and brief). Its polarity depends on the ionic selectivity of the channel, in a Uptake by glial cells Diffusion Enzymatic degradation Reuptake by presynaptic process Internalization by postsynaptic process Figure 3-9. Mechanisms for removal of neurotransmitter after release. Different transmitters favor different mechanisms: enzymatic degradation of acetylcholine and neuropeptides, reuptake of other small-molecule neurotransmitters, internalization of neuropeptides bound to receptors.

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