By Larry Diamond, Marc F. Plattner
The latest quantity within the acclaimed magazine of Democracy sequence addresses electoral structures and democracy. because the variety of democracies has elevated worldwide, a heated debate has emerged between specialists approximately which method top promotes the consolidation of democracy. Is proportional illustration, a majoritarian approach, a mix of the 2, or another process the simplest for brand spanking new democracies? This booklet compares the stories of numerous international locations, from Latin the USA to southern Africa, from Uruguay, Japan, and Taiwan to Israel, Afghanistan, and Iraq.Contributors: Joel D. Barkan, Jeffrey Cason, Adeed Dawisha, Larry Diamond, Andrew Ellis, Ken Gladdish, Donald Horowitz, man Lardeyret, Arend Lijphart, Jih-wen Lin, Emanuele Ottolenghi, Marc F. Plattner, Quentin L. Quade, Benjamin Reilly, Andrew Reynolds, David Samuels, Richard Snyder, Richard Soudriette, R. Kent Weaver (2007)
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Extra info for Electoral Systems and Democracy (A Journal of Democracy Book)
By contrast, continental Europe tends to use list PR, and so do Francophone countries in Africa. Some very poor decisions can be made on the basis of cultural affinity. Benin, a former French colony, opted, like France, for a presidential system, with a runoff election if no candidate receives a majority on the first ballot. By choosing the runoff system, Benin turned a relatively benign tripolar ethnic conflict into a much more serious bipolar conflict. Deliberate choice, not cultural affinity, ought to be the basis of decisions about electoral systems.
On the other hand, electoral systems that allow politicians to be elected without behaving moderately may make postelectoral conciliation more difficult. Coalitions that are created after elections merely to form a government of 50 percent plus one of the seats in parliament may prove to be fragile when divisive ethnic issues arise. So, for interethnic conciliation, the question is how the electoral system affects the preelectoral calculations of parties and politicians. 6) Minority officeholding.
System changes also arise in transitions to democracy—sometimes when the transition is peaceful and domestically driven, and almost always when the transition follows violent conflict and is internationally driven. Iraq is a prime recent example of this. 2 In Latin America, there has increasingly been a trend toward MMP, with Bolivia, Venezuela, and Mexico all moving in this direction. In the aftermath of the breakup of the Soviet Union, many countries of the former Soviet bloc, such as Estonia, Bulgaria, Poland, Moldova, and Romania, turned to List-PR systems.
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