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By Amnon Cohen

Jerusalem was once by no means simply one other Ottoman city, yet within the heyday of the Ottoman Empire it displayed a few of the features of a Muslim conventional society. Professor Cohen makes complete use of the wealthy and hitherto unexplored Arabic and Turkish files in terms of this era to reconstruct a vibrant and precise photo of way of life during this energetic city centre. His research specializes in the key guilds of sixteenth-century Jerusalem - butchers, soap-producers and purchasers, millers and bakers, describing and analysing their construction equipment, costs and measures, and the prone they supplied for the neighborhood inhabitants. additionally, their monetary ties with neighbouring villages, in addition to their social heritage and inter-relations are mentioned. the writer exhibits how this targeted wisdom can result in a greater figuring out of the longer-term alterations within the economic climate of the town and of the Empire as an entire.

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As for all the other brands of meat, for which demand was generally lower, only the two lower grades are mentioned: the more expensive one was "fat", "good" or "with few bones" (khafifal-cazm); the lower quality was referred to as "less than it" (ma dunahu). The difference in price for the two grades of all five kinds of meat was usually 10-20%, with the exception of cows where the difference could be as great at 50%. As of 1560 new terminology is introduced to differentiate the quality of sheep and goats: the "good" meat was referred to as turkumdni, whereas the inferior quality was termed balqdwi or baladl.

Hasuna sold a flock of more than 200 sheep (rather a large one in local terms) to a sipahi living in Jerusalem who in turn re-sold it to Taj al-Dln al-Sukkari. 42 More than mere coincidence seems to have occurred here; the events were apparently interrelated. An interesting finding that emerges is that the head of the guild must have had ample funds at his disposal, to enable him to accumulate enough animals with which to regulate the supply of meat and maintain the fixed prices. 43 In any event, further difficulties lay ahead.

E. " The fillet does not appear regularly in the price lists (see below) for either sheep or goat meat. g. 1551, 1552, 1562 and from 1564 to the end of the century, with only three exceptions) when it was not mentioned at all and no price was quoted for it, which leads to one conclusion: there was no demand for this expensive cut. The two grades, the medium and lower quality, were always offered to the public and Butchers and meat consumption 37 recorded on the price lists. As for all the other brands of meat, for which demand was generally lower, only the two lower grades are mentioned: the more expensive one was "fat", "good" or "with few bones" (khafifal-cazm); the lower quality was referred to as "less than it" (ma dunahu).

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