By Claes H. de Vreese
Direct democracy is renowned. Referenda are an more and more very important technique of enacting or fighting laws in international locations worldwide. This publication specializes in the most important actors in a referendum (the political elites/ events, the media and electorate) and is based round issues corresponding to crusade sort, crusade results, electoral mobilization and turnout, in addition to vote selection. The individuals particularly deal with the position of referendum campaigns and their effect and convey why referendum campaigns could topic greater than the other political election campaigns.
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Additional resources for Dynamics of Referendum Campaigns: An International Perspective
63–83. Mendelsohn, M. and A. Parkin (eds) (2001) Referendum Democracy: Citizens, Elites, and Deliberation in Referendums Campaigns (New York, Palgrave). Nie, N. , J. R. Petrocik and S. Verba (1979) The Changing American Voter (Cambridge, Harvard University Press). Oscarsson, H. and S. Holmberg (eds) (2004) Kampen om euron [The Battle over the Euro] (Göteborg University: Department of Political Science). Page, B. I. and R. Y. Shapiro (1992) The Rational Public: Fifty Years of Trends in Americans’ Policy Preferences (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
The vast majority of an electorate only hears about politics and election campaigns through the media and the content forms the backdrop against which political leaders, institutions, and issues are evaluated. Individual-level effects of media can be observed on the processing of information, on perceptions of the political system, on political affections and attitudes as well as on behavioral intentions or real behavior. A comprehensive campaign effect study (de Vreese and Semetko, 2004) demonstrated that a referendum campaign may: (i) lead citizens to evaluate the campaign positively or negatively; (ii) induce political cynicism, dependent upon the media content to which citizens are exposed and pay attention; (iii) affect citizen’s evaluations of domestic political leaders; (iv) serve to crystallize opinion on the topic of the referendum; and (v) influence some voters on how to vote.
H. de and H. A. Semetko (2004) Political Campaigning in Referendums: Framing the Referendum Issue (London: Routledge). Wattenberg, M. P. (1992) The Rise of Candidate-centered Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press). Zaller, J. (1992) The Nature and Origin of Mass Opinion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Zaller, J. (2002) ‘The Statistical Power of Election Studies to Detect Media Exposure Effects in Political Campaigns’, Electoral Studies, 21(2002): 297–329. 2 Opinion Formation and Change in Referendum Campaigns Lawrence LeDuc The referendums on the European Constitutional Treaty which took place in Spain, France, the Netherlands and Luxembourg in 2005 provided scholars with a unique opportunity to examine more closely the process by which voters form and change opinions on complex and unfamiliar political questions.
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