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By John V. Parachini, David E. Mosher, John C. Baker, Keith Crane, Michael S. Chase, Michael Daugherty

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Extra info for Diversion of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons Expertise from the Former Soviet Union: Understanding an Evolving Problem

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In most of the closed cities, administrative and security personnel maintain tight controls on the travel of key personnel. For example, authorities exercise great control over passports, which restricts the ability of personnel to travel abroad. In addition, access to closed cities is regulated. Many of the closed cities and weaponsrelated facilities are geographically located in remote areas, making contact with personnel difficult. The location of facilities in more isolated, less populated, and predominately Slavic areas also makes it more difficult for foreigners to operate without being noticed.

25 Bunn and Wier, 2004; Albright and Higgins, 2003, pp. 49–55. 26 Miller, Judith, Stephen Engelberg, and William Broad, Germs: Biological Weapons and America’s Secret War, New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001. html (as of April 29, 2004). S. html (as of April 30, 2004). 26 Unique Proliferation Needs Personnel Materials Equipment Chemical Biological Nuclear Power Designers Engineers X X X Nascent power ? X X Terrorist X X X Power Nascent power Terrorist X X X X X X X X X X Power Technicians X X Nascent power X X Terrorist X X X X Knowledge and skill types: I = end-to-end; II = highly specialized; III = experienced technicians; IV = admin and security Another way to approach the problem of knowledge diversion is to understand the unique proliferation needs of the various types of groups or states.

DEMAND FOR PROLIFERATION-CRITICAL KNOWLEDGE This section examines the scope and nature of those who demand proliferation-critical knowledge that may be available in the FSU. So far, we have examined the supply of weapons-critical knowledge within the former Soviet Union, but what about the demand for that knowledge? The fear that such knowledge would end up in rogue states is what drove the United States to establish its nonproliferation programs in Russia and in other FSU states during the 1990s.

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