By Jana Holsanova
Whereas there's a becoming physique of psycholinguistic experimental learn on mappings among language and imaginative and prescient on a note and sentence point, there are virtually no stories on how audio system understand, conceptualise and spontaneously describe a posh visible scene on better degrees of discourse. This publication explores the connection among language, eye events and cognition, and brings jointly discourse research with cognitively orientated behavioral examine. according to the research of knowledge drawn from spoken descriptive discourse, spontaneous dialog, and experimental investigations, this paintings deals a complete photograph of the dynamic natures of language, imaginative and prescient and psychological imagery. Verbal and visible information, synchronised and correlated via a multimodal scoring process, are used as home windows to the brain to teach how language and imaginative and prescient, in live performance, can elucidate covert psychological techniques.
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Additional info for Discourse, Vision, and Cognition (Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 23)
Structure and content of spoken picture descriptions Table 5. Distribution of foci serving orientational and organisational functions in four studies on picture description. Comm. functions Studies Types of foci orientational eval expert organisational interact introspect/meta Average # foci off-line + on-line + off-line, on-line + Sign. * ET narrative + interact ET 4% 1% 3% 5% 26 10% 0% 4% 7% 20 10% 3% 2% 8,5% 51 4% 0% 4% 3% 57 NS NS NS NS * Instead, the speakers’ introspection and impressions dominated.
Would other types of foci constitute the discourse when informants describe the picture either off-line (from memory) or on-line (simultaneously with the description)? Last but not least, what does the structure and content of descriptions look like in a spontaneous conversation? Do the same types of foci occur and is their distribution the same? In the following section, we will discuss the above-mentioned types of foci and their distribution in different settings by comparing the presented taxonomy with data from different studies on picture description.
From a linguistic perspective, discourse markers can be characterised as “sequentially dependent elements that delimitate spoken language units” (Schiffrin 1987: 31). “Discourse markers are used to signal the relation between the utterance and the immediate context” (Redeker 1990: 372). From a cognitive perspective, discourse markers can be conceived of as more or less conscious attentional signals that mark the structuring of the speech and open smaller or larger steps in its development. Discourse operators are conjunctions, adverbials, comment clauses, or interjections used with the primary function of bringing to the listeners’ attention a particular kind of linkage of the upcoming discourse unit with the immediate (Redeker 2000: 16) discourse context.
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