By Colin Mackerras, Donald H. McMillen, Andrew Watson
Encompassing China's political (and additionally social, fiscal and cultural) improvement seeing that 1949, this can be an updated and accomplished survey of a rustic that might be of use to Asian experiences and Politics scholars and lecturers alike.
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Additional info for Dictionary of the Politics of the People's Republic of China
Other than linguistic differences, regional variations are quite strong among the Han people. Some cultural phenomena which tend to follow linguistic variations are distinctive music and theatre, cuisine, festivals, clothing, marriage customs, village architecture and burial customs. The regional theatre styles, for instance, use not only the local dialect but also distinct musical instruments and, sometimes, melodies. Although some regions have their own stories, on the whole these do not vary widely from place to place.
Thereafter a series of experiments and pragmatic adjustments were made to achieve those aims. In many instances the experiments and demands from below exceeded the extent of official policy and forced further adjustment. In other cases, political leaders used economic experiments as a means of promoting their political standing. As they evolved, therefore, the reforms began to break out of the planned economy framework and built up their own momentum. Inevitably this also generated further political debate as established orthodoxy was undermined and new problems arose.
The troughs in the cycle were associated with efforts by the ‘conservative’ left to reassert the principles of the socialist planned economy and changes in the central leadership, when leaders such as Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang were criticized for failing to handle the crises they confronted. Meanwhile, many reform economists proposed increasingly fundamental changes to systems of ownership and reliance on markets as necessary to ensure efficient macroeconomic management and the reform of state enterprises.
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