By R K Sinnott
Chemical Engineering layout is among the best-known and commonly followed texts to be had for college kids of chemical engineering. It bargains with the appliance of chemical engineering ideas to the layout of chemical techniques and gear. Revised all through, the fourth version covers the newest elements of procedure layout, operations, safeguard, loss prevention and gear choice, between others. entire and designated, the e-book is supported via difficulties and chosen ideas. additionally the e-book is typical through pros as a daily reference. *
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Extra resources for Coulson Richardson s Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Design
H2 SO4 No. of chemical species No. of reactions 4 1 No. 9. CONSTRAINTS ON FLOWS AND COMPOSITIONS It is obvious, but worth emphasising, that the sum of the individual component flows in any stream cannot exceed the total stream flow. Also, that the sum of the individual molar or weight fractions must equal 1. Hence, the composition of a stream is completely defined if all but one of the component concentrations are given. 42 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The component flows in a stream (or the quantities in a batch) are completely defined by any of the following: 1.
Knowing v3 , v1 and v2 , f2 can be solved to give v5 ; v5 is an input to f4 and f5 . 4. Knowing v4 , v2 and v5 , f4 can be solved to give v6 ; v6 is an input to f5 . 5. Knowing v6 and v5 , f5 can be solved to give v7 ; which completes the solution. 12. 12. 11 redrawn to show order of solution v7 23 INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN With this order, the equations can be solved sequentially, with no need for the simultaneous solution of any of the equations. The fortuitous selection of v3 and v4 as design variables has given an efficient order of solution of the equations.
Variable Number Stream flow-rate Composition (component concentrations) Temperature Pressure Stream enthalpy 1 C 1 1 1 Total, Nv D C C 4 Relationships between variables Number Composition 1 Enthalpy 2 1 1 Total, Nr D 2 Degrees of freedom Nd D Nv Nr D C C 4 2DCC2 (1) The sum of the mass or mol, fractions, must equal one. (2) The enthalpy is a function of stream composition, temperature and pressure. Specifying (C C 2) variables completely defines the stream. Flash distillation The idea of degrees of freedom in the design process can be further illustrated by considering a simple process unit, a flash distillation.
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