By S. Mahajan, L. C. Kimerling
The improvement of digital fabrics and especially advances in semiconductor expertise have performed a relevant position within the electronics revolution by way of permitting the construction of more and more affordable and robust computing gear and complicated telecommunications units. This Concise Encyclopedia, which includes appropriate articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of fabrics technological know-how and Engineering in addition to newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the fabrics features of semiconductors and the applied sciences vital in solid-state electronics. progress of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers are mentioned within the quantity and assurance is integrated of defects and their results on gadget habit. Metallization and passivation concerns also are coated. Over a hundred alphabetically prepared articles, written through global specialists within the box, are each one meant to function the 1st resource of data on a specific point of digital fabrics. the amount is generally illustrated with pictures, diagrams and tables. A bibliography is supplied on the finish of every article to steer the reader to fresh literature. A entire approach of cross-references, a three-level topic index and an alphabetical checklist of articles are integrated to help readers within the abstraction of data
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Indeed, F changes sign from positive at low densities to negative at high densities. Although this equation describes the electron density dependence of the energy of formation (with the exception of the density dependence of the selfinteraction of an ion with its screening electrons), it is not sufficient, as emphasized by Hafner (1983) and as recognized by Pettifor and Gelatt themselves. The interatomic potentials can contribute significantly to the energy of formation. Thus, at the present moment, there is no simple microscopic model applicable to all simple metal alloys.
22 which is predicted by the closest packing of atoms on this lattice. 2 Electronegativity The zinc blende lattice considered in Fig. 1 is more typical of a covalent rather than an ionic system, since its atoms are fourfold tetrahedrally coordinated like the carbon atoms in diamond. This more open structure is a consequence of the directional nature of the sp^ covalent bonding which is absent in the ionic treatment of the atoms as spherical entities. Thus, another factor that determines structural stability is the amount of ionic character or ionicity of the bond, Pauhng (1960) related the ionicity y; of a heteronuclear AB bond to the electronegativity difference Δ= - A^A through where Ä: is a constant and A^^es is the number of resonating bonds per atom.
Rev. Β 21: 3214^21 Heine V, Weaire D 1970 Pseudopotential theory of cohesion and structure. Solid State Phys. 24: 249-463 Hodges C Η 1978 Interpretation of alloying tendencies and impurity heats of solution. Philos. Mag. Β 38: 205-20 Hodges C H, Stott Μ J 1972 Theory of electrochemical effects in alloys. Philos. Mag. 26: 375-92 Hohenberg Ρ, Kohn W 1964 Inhomogeneous electron gas. Phys. Rev. Β 136: 864^71 Kohn W, Sham L J 1965 Self-consistent equations including exchange and correlation effects.
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