Download Competition Policy in Europe by Johann Eekhoff, Christiane Moch (auth.), Johann Eekhoff PDF

By Johann Eekhoff, Christiane Moch (auth.), Johann Eekhoff (eds.)

1 by way of Karel Van Miert because the early years of the ecu group, pageant coverage has performed a decisive position within the construction of a extra filthy rich, aggressive and built-in ecu financial system. over the past 40 years, the motion of ecu pageant professionals has supplied various examples of the advantages of a sound-working festival setting for shoppers and for the eu economic system as an entire. pageant brings reduce costs, fosters technical development and creativity, and stops the unwanted effects of a firm abusing its dominant or monopoly place. in the course of my mandate as a Commissioner in command of pageant, i've got actively inspired this strengthening of ecu pageant coverage as did my predecessors. for this reason, there was becoming public wisdom in Europe of the necessity at no cost and reasonable festival in addition to the consolidation of the contest coverage within the "acquis communautaire". ecu festival coverage is now at a tuming turning aspect in its background. In might 2004, ten international locations will sign up for a brand new ecu Union composed of twenty-five Member States and 450 million humans. this huge accession to the european is of paramount significance to the eu integration and may deeply impression on eu pageant policy.

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It is argued that, as different jurisdictions offer different services, they should be permitted to levy taxes autonomously, so as not to disturb competition between jurisdictions. However, complexities can emerge. In several European member states, for example, the costs of using public roads are levied on haulage firms, mainly through a tax on vehicles. However, use of the roads is free. In other member states, alI all drivers are charged for the use of main roads and haulage firms do not have to pay these taxes.

The aggregate Community-wide tumover turnover of each of at least two of the undertakings concemed concerned is more than £€ 100 million. Art 86 (Liberalisation) This article has been "rediscovered" in the 1990's. It was rarely used prior. Several directives have been issued (Directive on the transparency of links between States and State-owned companies, Directive on telecom ... ) and several decisions have been taken.

Art 81 covers any form of concerted practices. Art 81 only applies to agreements concluded by "undertakings". This makes the definition of the term "undertaking" an essential element in any anti-trust investigation. The Commission and the ECJ have given a very broad definition of undertakings in order to cover as many anticompetitive agreements as possible. Every entity with an autonomous economic activity can be considered as an undertaking and is hence subject to competition policy provisions (even opera singers ...

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