By Marcello Barbieri
This publication is the learn of all codes of existence with the normal tools of technology. The genetic code and the codes of tradition were identified for a very long time and characterize the historic origin of this ebook. what's relatively new during this box is the research of all codes that got here after the genetic code and before the codes of tradition. The life of those natural codes, in spite of the fact that, is not just a massive experimental truth. it truly is a type of evidence that experience outstanding theoretical implications. the 1st is that almost all occasions of macroevolution have been linked to the foundation of latest natural codes, and this offers us a very new reconstruction of the historical past of existence. the second one implication is that codes contain that means and we'd like consequently to introduce in biology not just the idea that of data but in addition the idea that of organic which means. The 3rd theoretical implication comes from the truth that the natural codes were hugely conserved in evolution, which means they're the best invariants of lifestyles. The learn of the natural codes, in brief, is bringing to mild new mechanisms that experience operated within the background of existence and new basic techniques in biology.
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Extra info for Code Biology: A New Science of Life
Mechanisms is not determinism, because it is more general than classical physics (quantum theory is mechanism, and so is non-equilibrium thermodynamics, chaos theory and the like). 3. Mechanism is not physicalism, because it is not limited to physical quantities (natural selection, the Turing machine and Godel’s theorem are mechanistic models that are not based on physical quantities). 4. Finally, and most importantly, mechanism is made of models and models do not coincide with reality, a concept that Count Alfred Korzybski (1996) vividly expressed with the maxim “the map is not the territory”.
Modern biology has readily accepted the concept of information but has carefully avoided the concept of meaning, and yet organic information and organic meaning are both the result of natural processes. Just as it is an act of copying that creates organic information, so it is an act of coding that creates organic meaning. Copying and coding are the processes; copymakers and codemakers are their agents; organic information and organic meaning are their results. But the parallel goes even further.
The metaphor of the aperiodic crystal was used by Schrödinger to convey the idea that the atoms of the genetic material must be arranged in a unique pattern in every individual organism, an idea that later was referred to as biological specificity. The metaphor of the code-script was used to express the concept that there must be a miniature code in the hereditary substance, a code that Schrödinger compared to “a Morse code with many characters”, that was supposed to carry “the highly complicated plan of development of the entire organism” (Schrödinger 1944).
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