Download Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement 2nd Ed. by Institution of Civil Engineers PDF

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Extra info for Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement 2nd Ed.

Example text

In the UK this is easily accepted on to the grid, as wind penetration is very low and wind forecasting is very good, not least because in the current market decisions on how much power is available and required are calculated within an hour of dispatch, and over such timetables short-term prediction is extremely reliable. Wind farms can offer fast response in some circumstances: if a large wind farm is in operation and expected to be so for the next hour, it can provide an extremely fast response to changes in demand on the grid over the short term.

This is a mainly financial decision in a mixed system such as the UK’s, but far more important in countries such as Norway that have a very high reliance on hydropower. Elsewhere it has led to accusations that hydro companies are ‘gaming’ the market – holding back water supplies unnecessarily to exacerbate a power shortage and force up the price of electricity. 5 Wind power Wind power now provides a small proportion of the UK’s power. Since it is available only when the wind is blowing, it is impossible to guarantee that power is available when it is most needed (at peak times, for example).

Sometimes this is deliberately planned, with a use for each product, in the CHP plants we have discussed, and sometimes the heat is simply regarded as a waste product that must be dissipated in a way that does not cause problems elsewhere. The second, broader, reason is one of policy. Embedded generation is encouraged because it allows energy to be generated as close as possible to where it is used, reducing the losses incurred in transporting it long distances and giving customers a far better understanding of how much energy they use and why.

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Download Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement 2nd Ed. by Institution of Civil Engineers PDF
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