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By Fred W. Turek, Joseph S. Takahashi (auth.), Joseph S. Takahashi, Fred W. Turek, Robert Y. Moore (eds.)

The Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology sequence offers with the facets of neurosciences that experience the main direct and rapid touching on habit. It provides the most up-tp-date learn to be had within the particular parts of sensory modalities. This quantity explores circadian rhythms.

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6 B'/lend ~ 3- ,I Y'onset c: ;g ,. ~ OJ .. I~*~ -2 -I 0 2 3 , -, -3 -2 -I 0 2 3 , 'f-'onset or-'f-'end (hours) Figure 9. Accuracy of circadian entrainment as a function of IjJ in two diurnal species, chaffinch (left) and tree shrew (right), maintained year-round in natural daylight at the arctic circle. Abscissa: Average time of activity onset before (+) or after (-) sunrise, or average time of activity end before (-) or after (+) sunset, in half-hour bins. : SEM (boxes), SD (lines). Note that accuracy is maximal when onset and end occur 0-1 hour before sunrise or after sunset.

Geolrupes silwJticus 2 .. CardueUs chloris tlDl//ody/es . 3 x Corpodacus m,x;canus 3 • Hocaca mulatto 25 ...... , . /' (00)---- - '- I 22 28 c: ·12 27 8. ~ 60 Carabus auratus 10aHus muse a 26 ,.. 5. ~. 23 I I I I Kr3 /0-] /0-' /00 I /0' I I I /0 2 1(J3 /0-3 I 1:)-2 I I /0-' /00 I /0' I /0 2 I /03 I I /0-2 10-' I I 100 10' I /0 2 I 1:)3 Intensity of illumination (lUX) Figure 21. The dependence of free-running circadian period 'T of corticosteroid rhythms on the intensity of constant illumination in different vertebrate orders.

Even if there is no entrainment, a zeitgeber can exert its periodic influence. This leads to slow oscillations or beats, where the zeitgeber signal speeds up the biological rhythm when it coincides with a particular phase of the latter and slows it down when coinciding with another phase. This has, for instance, been demonstrated in deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus) exposed to sinusoidal cycles of light intensity simulating light conditions in the arctic summer (Swade, 1969). Such zeitgebers may be too weak to entrain the circadian activity rhythm.

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