By Ayhan NAZLI, Murat DURKAYA, Yener EKŞİ, Nuh ÖZDİN, Muhammet AYDIN, Davut PİRAZ, Necdet ÇELİK, Uğur Hulusi PATLI, Varol GÜRLER
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Extra info for Chemistry Oxygen and Nitrogen containing Organic Compounds (Zambak)
R C Aldehydes are represented by the general formula, O or RCHO. H C O or CHO groups are the functional groups of aldehydes. H R may be an alkyl or aryl group. The general formula of aliphatic aldehydes is CnH2nO. The simplest member of the aldehydes is formaldehyde and has two hydrogen atoms bonded to the carbonyl group. 1 What is the molecular formula of the aldehyde that contains 40% carbon by mass? (C : 12 g/mol, H : 1 g/mol, O : 16 g/mol) 64 Oxygen And Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds The molar mass of the aldehyde that has the molecular formula CnH2nO is (12n + 2n + 16) or (14 n + 16) g/mol.
3CH3OH + K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 o 3HCHO + K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 7H2O In the second step, the formed aldehyde oxidises to carboxylic acid (methanoic acid) 3HCHO + K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 o 3HCOOH + K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 4H2O In the third step oxidation produces carbonic acid from carboxylic acid which is unstable and decomposes to CO2 and H2O. 3HCOOH + K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 o 3H2CO3 + K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 4H2O H2CO3 CO2n + H2O b. 2–propanol is a secondary alcohol. So it is fully oxidised in only one step. The product will be a ketone (2–propanone) 5CH3 CH CH3 + 2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 OH O 5CH3 C CH3 + K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 8H2O Alcohols and Ethers 33 14 The molar mass of an aldehyde which is produced by the one degree oxidation of a monohydric alcohol is 46 g/mol.
This mixture is known as spirit. In industry, another method to prepare pure ethanol is to add benzene to the mixture of 95% ethanol and water. Benzene forms a different azeotrope with ethanol and water. 9°C and allows for the distillation of pure ethanol. Ethyl alcohol is an important organic solvent. It is used in the preparation of tincture of iodine, paints, essences, perfumes and cosmetics. It is also found in drinks, spirit and cologne. Ethyl alcohol is the starting substance for most organic compounds.
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