By Kenneth W. Whitten
Desire a chemistry textbook you can comprehend? CHEMISTRY starts off with the fundamentals and illustrates because it is going so one can stick with every one thought totally. Plus, this variation has a whole on-line path on hand in OWL (Online Web-based Learning), a versatile web-based homework administration procedure entire with simulations and instructional. to be had individually. OWL additionally comprises numerous cross Chemistry™, mini video lectures for key thought assessment and examination prep so that you can view in OWL, obtain in your computer, or import in your moveable video participant to review at the pass!
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Additional resources for Chemistry ninth edition
Even with their shortcomings, Dalton’s ideas provided a framework that could be modified and expanded by later scientists. Thus John Dalton is often considered to be the father of modern atomic theory. The smallest particle of an element that maintains its chemical identity through all chemical and physical changes is called an atom (Figure 1-2). In Chapter 4, we shall study the structure of the atom in detail; let us simply summarize here the main features of atomic composition. Atoms, and therefore all matter, consist principally of three fundamental particles: electrons, protons, and neutrons.
For example, the meat is composed of blood vessels, protein structures, fine tendons, etc. 14 CHAPTER 1 The Foundations of Chemistry © Cengage Learning/Charles Steele sulfur mixture iron (a) (b) Figure 1-11 (a) A mixture of iron and sulfur is a heterogeneous mixture. (b) Like any mixture, it can be separated by physical means, such as removing the iron with a magnet. MATTER Everything that has mass MIXTURES PURE SUBSTANCES Variable composition Fixed composition Cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical methods Components retain their characteristic properties May be separated into pure substances by physical methods Mixtures of different compositions may have widely different properties HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES Have same composition throughout Components are indistinguishable Physical changes HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES Do not have same composition throughout Components are distinguishable Can only be changed in identity and properties by chemical methods Under identical conditions, properties do not vary COMPOUNDS ELEMENTS Can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes, always in a definite ratio Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes Chemical changes Figure 1-12 One scheme for classification of matter.
In the following figure, ethanol, water, and phenol are compared and the ECP surfaces show the increasing polarity of the O—H bond that corresponds to the increasing acidity of these compounds. To the Student Ethanol, C2H5OH Water, H2O Phenol, C6H5OH Keys for Color Codes In addition to full-color photography and art, we have used color to help you identify and organize important ideas, techniques, and concepts as you study this book. 1. Important ideas, mathematical relationships, and summaries are displayed on light tan screens, spanning the width of the text.
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