By R Orme, RA Fricker-Gates, MA Gates (auth.), Giuseppe Giovanni, Vincenzo Di Matteo, Ennio Esposito (eds.)
This publication presents a different and well timed multidisciplinary synthesis of our present wisdom of the anatomy, pharmacology, body structure and pathology of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons. the only chapters, written by way of best scientists of their fields, discover the existence cycle of dopaminergic neurons from their beginning to demise, the reason for Parkinson's illness, the second one commonest and disabling within the aged inhabitants. however, the intracellular cascade of occasions resulting in dopamine phone dying remains to be unknown and, for this reason, remedy is symptomatic instead of preventive. The mechanisms in which changes reason neuronal dying, new healing methods and the newest facts of a potential de novo neurogenesis within the SNc are reviewed and singled out in several chapters. This booklet bridges uncomplicated technological know-how and medical perform and should organize the reader for the following few years, with a view to without doubt be eventful when it comes to the development of dopamine research.
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This booklet presents a special and well timed multidisciplinary synthesis of our present wisdom of the anatomy, pharmacology, body structure and pathology of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons. the one chapters, written by way of best scientists of their fields, discover the existence cycle of dopaminergic neurons from their beginning to dying, the reason for Parkinson's disorder, the second one most typical and disabling situation within the aged inhabitants.
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Additional info for Birth, Life and Death of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Substantia Nigra
2005) and Parkinsonian patients (Mendez et al. 2005, 2008), although its relevance in DA-cell vulnerability is still unknown. The facts that the stimulation of D2 DA-receptors activates GIRK2 channels (Lacey et al. 1987, 1988), that GIRK2 activation hyperpolarizes DA cells (Lacey 1993), and that hyperpolarization increases DA uptake (Sonders et al. 1997) suggest that the inhibitory effects as well as the increase in DA uptake induced by D2 autoreceptors (Cass and Gerhardt 1994; Mayfield and Zahniser 2001) may be mediated by GIRK2.
Ann Neurol 26:766–770 Grace AA, Bunney BS (1984) The control of firing pattern in nigral dopamine neurons: burst firing. J Neurosci 4:2877–2890 Greene JG (2006) Gene expression profiles of brain dopamine neurons and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease. J Physiol 575:411–416 Greene JG, Dingledine R, Greenamyre JT (2005) Gene expression profiling of rat midbrain dopamine neurons: implications for selective vulnerability in parkinsonism. Neurobiol Dis 18:19–31 Grofova I, Deniau JM, Kitai ST (1982) Morphology of the substantia nigra pars reticulata projection neurons intracellularly labeled with HRP.
It is known that ionotropic receptors, particularly the NMDA group, play a fundamental role in this effect (Nash et al. 1999; Konitsiotis et al. 2000; Sonsalla et al. 1998), but an increasing body of evidence supports the involvement of other glutamate receptor types (Armentero et al. 2006; Bonsi et al. 2007; Vernon et al. 2007). Consequently, the expression pattern and subunit composition of glutamate receptors in midbrain DA-cells may contribute to their differential susceptibility to degeneration.
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