By Stefan Ihrig
Early in his occupation, Adolf Hitler took thought from Benito Mussolini, his senior colleague in fascism—this truth is celebrated. yet an both vital function version for Hitler and the Nazis has been nearly fullyyt overlooked: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founding father of glossy Turkey. Stefan Ihrig’s compelling presentation of this untold tale supplies to rewrite our knowing of the roots of Nazi ideology and strategy.
Hitler used to be deeply drawn to Turkish affairs after 1919. He not just widespread but in addition sought to mimic Atatürk’s radical building of a brand new country from the ashes of defeat in international warfare I. Hitler and the Nazis watched heavily as Atatürk defied the Western powers to grab govt, they usually modeled the Munich Putsch to a wide measure on Atatürk’s uprising in Ankara. Hitler later remarked that during the political aftermath of the nice battle, Atatürk used to be his grasp, he and Mussolini his students.
This used to be no fading fascination. because the Nazis struggled during the Twenties, Atatürk remained Hitler’s “star within the darkness,” his notion for remaking Germany alongside nationalist, secular, totalitarian, and ethnically particular strains. Nor did it get away Hitler’s detect how ruthlessly Turkish governments had handled Armenian and Greek minorities, whom influential Nazis without delay in comparison with German Jews. the hot Turkey, or not less than these points of it that the Nazis selected to work out, grew to become a version for Hitler’s plans and desires within the years top as much as the invasion of Poland.
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Additional info for Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination
It needs to be stressed here, however, just how much the perception of these two groups supplemented, indeed supported, the overall German perception of the Turkish War of Independence and, in turn, how much they were assimilated into this perception. With the Entente exhausted from fighting during the Great War and unwilling to commit too much manpower to the Ottoman Empire, the Greek army bore the brunt of the fighting against the Kemalists, fanned also by neo-imperial Greek ambitions. For the most part the war can be characterized as a Greco-Turkish war.
81 By early 1920 this premonition already had blossomed into the conviction that no matter what, the Kemalists would win. They began portraying the Turks as a David pitted against the Entente Goliath. ”82 Similarly, an article in the Frankfurter Zeitung, with the headline “The Situation of the Entente in the Orient,” claimed: “Kemal is in an advantageous situation; because even if the Entente wanted to, and even if Mr. ”83 Although the papers tended to reject the Entente discourse about Mustafa Kemal as a “robber” or a “gang leader,” in the beginning they had envisaged little more than a guerrilla war (Kleinkrieg).
He declared the sultan and the government in Constantinople removed from power. . Strange that these so often ridiculed and supposedly degenerate Turks can be an example and a lesson to certain other people of how one has to do it in order to protect national honor and völkisch existence against harm. 116 Here is another typical example from the Deutsche Tageszeitung from 1921: The Turks were the only nation that, despite all the weaknesses, despite decades of warfare, found the strength and the idealism not to bend unconditionally to the destructive will of the Entente, but who instead took up their weapons yet again.
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