By E. L. Wolf
Graphene is gifted and analyzed instead for silicon. the first concentration is on sunlight telephone and CMOS equipment applied sciences, with cognizance to the fabrication tools, together with extensions wanted, in each one case. really expert functions for graphene in the latest silicon expertise are mentioned and located to be promising.
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Graphene is gifted and analyzed instead for silicon. the first concentration is on sun mobilephone and CMOS equipment applied sciences, with recognition to the fabrication equipment, together with extensions wanted, in each one case. really expert functions for graphene in the current silicon know-how are mentioned and located to be promising.
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Additional info for Applications of Graphene: An Overview
Single layer graphene was clearly identified, along with bilayer and several-layer graphenes. The potential for large scale production is noted, with 2 mg/min of carbon being obtained for an input of 164 mg/min of ethanol. The four following demonstrations are of spontaneous crystallizations from liquid solution, in sealed autoclave vessels, in reactions described as ‘‘solvothermal synthesis’’. These methods are straightforward chemistry, combining a carbon source like CCl4 with K or Na metal to give free carbon and NaCl or KCl.
Limited solubility of C in the substrate can restrict the production to single layers of graphene, a desirable outcome. An important discovery of Reina et al. (2008) was that single crystal (and, later, also continuous polycrystalline CVD) graphene could be released from the traditional oxidized silicon substrate to be relocated to a different target substrate. The steps used by Reina et al. (2008) include covering (spin-coating) the film with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, 950,000 molecular weight, 9–6 wt % in anisole), followed by partially etching the surface of the SiO2 in 1 M NaOH aqueous solution.
A simplification of such a junction is the Schottky barrier cell, in which a thin semitransparent metal is deposited directly on the (n-type) silicon surface, leading to a positively-charged depletion region as donor electrons fall into inherent empty surface states at the silicon/metal interface. A variation of a Schottky barrier solar cell is one in which the metal layer is replaced by graphene, as recently reported by Miao et al. (2012). In that work, n-type silicon was directly covered with graphene.
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