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Additional resources for An Introduction to Electrical Instrumentation and Measurement Systems: A guide to the use, selection, and limitations of electrical instruments and measurement systems

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S. 2 +''2 2+' 2+ 14. s. s. s. 414 respectively. Phase relationships When alternating signals are present in a circuit containing a combination of resistive and reactive (inductive or capacitive) components, a time displacement will exist between the signals at various points in the circuit. If the signals are all of one frequency this time displacement is referred to as a phase angle, but this latter term cannot be used if more than a single frequency is present. amplitude I I ,,,_... 28. 28 v = Vm sin () i = Vm sin (() + cp) Thus p = Vm sin () x 1m sin (() = Vm/ m sin () sin (() = Vm/m 2 + cp) + cp) [cos () - cos (2() - cp)] 46 AN INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION Therefore the mean power over a cycle is the average power P = - 1 J211" -1 VrnIrn [cos cp - cos (2e - cp)] de 21T 0 2 I = -~ 41T 127T [cos cp - cos (2e - cp)] de 0 Examining the terms to be integrated, cos cp is a constant (cp does not change throughout a cycle), and cos (2e - cp) will go through two complete cycles as e goes from 0 to 21T, so its average value must be zero.

Bandwidth The range of frequencies over which an instrument can be used is usually referred to as its bandwidth. l ). 31. c. to 10 MHz, and 50 Hz to 10kHz. Rise time The presence in electrical and electronic circuits of inductive and capacitive components means that the output of a circuit will not instantaneously follow changes in signal level. 61). 1). 6 INTERFERENCE Measurements involving small electrical signals can be seriously affected by the presence of interference, that is, the displayed quantity will be the sum of the desired signal and unwanted or interference signals.

Huggins, Microprocessors and Microcomputers, their use and programming (Macmillan, London and Basingstoke, 1979) 9 G. F. , 12S (1978) 10 J. c. E. Trans. electronic Devices, 22 (1975) 642-9 11 BS 5233: 1975 Glossary of terms used in metrology 12 A. Simpson, Testing Methods and Reliability, Electronics (Macmillan, London and Basingstoke, 1976) 13 BS 89: Part 1: 1970 Single purpose direct acting electrical indicating instruments and their accessories 14 British Calibration Service, General Criteria for Laboratory Approval (London, 1967) 2 Analogue Instruments An analogue device is one in which the operation and output are continuously variable and bear a fIxed relationship to the input.

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