Download Africa. An Encyclopedia for Students. Sadat - Zulu & Index by John Middleton PDF

By John Middleton

Offering a complete examine the continent of Africa and the international locations that include it, this ebook describes its peoples and cultures, tune and artwork, exchange and financial system, vacation trips and fairs, tribal teams, ecology, faith, fossil and skeleton discoveries, the land and its heritage, paintings and structure and everyday life. It examines Africa from prehistoric occasions to the current day.

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For the next thousand years Kanem and Bornu, the kingdom that followed it, seized slaves in raids on the lands to the south. These slaves performed agricultural labor and sometimes colonized new territory. Slavetaking required ruthlessness, a quality praised in a song about one king during the 1000s: The best you took (and sent home) as the first fruits of battle: The children crying on their mothers you snatched away from their mothers: You took the slave wife from a slave, and set them in lands far removed from one another.

Among the slaves were many women, destined to become domestic laborers or concubines*. Enslaved men were acquired to work in agriculture, mining, shipping, fishing, and for other manual labor. In addition, some rulers in Egypt and elsewhere in North Africa used black male slaves as soldiers. Western Africa. Beginning in the 1400s European powers established colonies in a number of areas, first on islands in the Atlantic Ocean, later in the Americas, and finally in Africa. In order to exploit* the vast resources of these new colonies, especially those in the Americas, Europeans needed many workers.

Debt peonage, also called pawnship, was a servile condition based on a relationship between a debtor and a creditor*. Under this system a creditor held an individual—a “pawn”—as a guarantee that a debt would be repaid. Often the pawn was not the actual debtor but one of the debtor’s relatives. The pawn had to work for the creditor until the debtor paid off the debt, ending the pawn’s period of servitude. If the debt was not repaid, or if the creditor himself fell into debt before the pawn was released, the creditor could sell the pawn into slavery.

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