By Shirley D. Sullivan
Sullivan specializes in 8 key mental phrases - phr n, thumos, kardia, kear, tor, nous, prapides, and psych - that seem usually in historical Greek texts yet that have a variety of attainable meanings. collecting situations from The Persians, Seven opposed to Thebes, Suppliants, Agamemnon, Choephoroi, and Eumenides (instances from Prometheus certain, whose authorship is in query, are taken care of in notes and an appendix), Sullivan first examines every one psychic time period individually. She then discusses cases of the phrases in each one play, analyzing the that means of the psychic time period within the context of the play during which it seems that and supplying info on Aeschylus' utilization. This ebook sheds gentle at the wealthy and occasionally difficult manner during which Aeschylus makes use of mental terminology and is a wonderful reference for classicists, psychologists, philosophers, and students of comparative literature.
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Extra resources for Aeschylus' Use of Psychological Terminology: Traditional and New
The entities resemble one another and yet have distinctive features. In their number and complexity they show the profound and deeply felt reaction of the Chorus at this point in the play. The psychic entities appear to contribute to this reaction by their various activities. 70 All four psychic entities are active at the same time in the response of the Chorus. Kardia fears and prophesies; it is in pain and murmurs. Kear circles in strong motions. " Phren, lacking confidence to dispel fear, is on fire.
357). "Fear" ( ) is found there (//. 394; Od. , Nem. 39). Aeschylus' references to "courage" and "fear," therefore, are traditional. "47 No "courage," sitting like a king on a throne and strong in its persuasive power, encourages phren to dispel the fear that flies before kardia. The thoughts of phren, it appears, somehow affirm the fear. This fear seems justified in the situation. "48 In poets earlier than Aeschylus phrenes are often associated with upright behaviour,49 but only in the contemporary poets do we find explicit mentions of justice.
At the end of the play Orestes' madness is thought to occur in phrenes. " He then describes "fear" as being at his kardia (1024). He proceeds to say that, while he is still "in his senses" ( ), he will state the nature of his actions. At 1056, responding to Orestes' claim to see the "watchful dogs of his mother," the Chorus say: "for fresh is the blood still upon your hands; from this, confusion ( ) falls upon your phrenes" They see the effect of blood in his case to be very different from that in Clytemnestra.
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