By Kelly Sims Gallagher, David T. Ellwood
Strength coverage is on everyone's brain nowadays. The U.S. presidential crusade desirous about strength independence and exploration ("Drill, child, drill!"), weather switch, replacement fuels, even nuclear strength. yet there's a major problem endemic to America's strength demanding situations. Policymakers are likely to do exactly adequate to fulfill political calls for yet now not sufficient to unravel the true difficulties, and so they wait too lengthy to behave. The ensuing regulations are overly reactive, enacted as soon as harm is already performed, and they're too usually incomplete, incoherent, and ineffectual. Given the gravity of present fiscal, geopolitical, and environmental matters, this can be extra unacceptable than ever. this crucial quantity information this challenge, making transparent the unlucky result of such short-sighted considering, and it proposes measures to beat this counterproductive tendency. all the members to appearing in Time on strength coverage are affiliated with Harvard collage and rank between America's pre-eminent power coverage analysts. They take on vital questions as they pertain to express components of power coverage: Why are those parts of strength coverage so vital? How could "acting in time"?—i.e. no longer ready till politics calls for action?—make a distinction? What may still our coverage really be? we have to get strength coverage correct this time?—Gallagher and her colleagues aid cleared the path.
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Additional resources for Acting in Time on Energy Policy
3 However, wind requires excess capacity because of intermittency in the wind resource, and so it is difficult to deploy as a source for base load power unless storage technologies become better and cheaper. Solar generated electricity has similar energy storage issues and is also expensive compared with wind or nuclear power, although solar thermal plants may be an interesting alternative to photovoltaic devices in addressing these concerns. Nuclear power can be used for base load power, unlike wind or solar photovoltaic power, but it has issues of safety and storage and handling of nuclear waste, and there are security concerns regarding nuclear weapons proliferation that must be addressed before widespread expansion is likely, at 1.
4°C (IPCC WG1 2007, p. 13). 14. IPCC Working Group III (IPCC WG3 2007). 15. Hansen and others (2008). 1). a. SRES, Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. 1960 Stabilization level I : 445–490 ppm CO2e II : 490–535 ppm CO2e III : 535–590 ppm CO2e IV : 590–710 ppm CO2e V : 710–855 ppm CO2e VI : 855–1130 ppm CO2e post-SRES range Historical emissions Gigatons of CO2 per year 2060 III 2080 II IV V VI I 280 300 2 4 6 8 400 Degrees celsius I 500 II III 600 IV 700 800 V 900 VI Figure 2-1. World Carbon Dioxide Historical Emissions and Scenario Projections, 1940–2100 (left side), and Projected Equilibrium Global Average Temperature Increase above Preindustrial for a Range of GHG Concentration Stabilization Levels (right side) Acting in Time on Climate Change 17 surface temperatures caused by global warming, the capacity of the oceans to absorb CO2 is decreased.
More economically attractive options may turn out to be too difficult or physically impossible to deploy quickly at very large scale, in which case more expensive options would have to be considered. It should be pointed out that investments in low-carbon energy technology innovation could reduce the risks here because not only should such investments yield new low- or zero-carbon technologies, but they should also help to reduce the costs of existing technologies (see chapter 5). Finally, there would, of course, be increased costs associated with having to deal with any damages that arise from overshooting the emissions budget and arriving at a much higher GHG concentration level.
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