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By Payne C.H.

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Extra info for A Synopsis of the Ionization Potentials of the Elements

Example text

16) This kind of specification is suitable in dynamics, simply because revealing dynamical behavior always and only from the “inertial viewpoint” is too restrictive. 3) which are suitable in multibody kinematics. For instance, instead of assigning one scalar rotation anz gle to a rotation axis, one may use αq three different angles α, β, γ assiqβ gned to three corresponding unit vectors ei ∈ IR3 , i = 1, 2, 3. 4. Cardan Angles AIB = R = eα e1 eβ e2 eγ e3 . 17) The single exponential matrices shall be called (transposed) “elementary transformations”.

4), dr = ur dϕ ⇒ rT On Rotation dr = [rr]T u = 0. 7) yields the eigenvalues √ (i = −1). ). It follows that ro = r(ϕ = 0) = Xc, leading to r(ϕ) = Xdiag{exp(λi ϕ)}X−1 ro := Φro . 6)] has been used. One has thus found the mapping to be R = exp(uϕ). 11) This seemingly simple result has the drawback that the matrix exponential is only defined by its series expansion, R = E + uϕ + u2 ϕ2 ϕ3 ϕ4 + u3 + u4 + ··· . 2! 3! 4! 12) However, because u3 = −u ⇒ u4 = −uu etc. (verified by direct calculation), one may collect the powers of ϕ, R= E+u ϕ− ϕ3 ϕ5 ϕ2 ϕ4 + + · · · + uu − + ··· 3!

21) is: transformation from an inertial representation to a body-fixed one needs three subsequent rotations, first about the e1 -axis with α, followed by a rotation about the (new) e2 -axis with β, followed by a rotation about the (new) e3 -axis with γ. As a consequence, the ˙ γ) axes that the elementary rotations (α, ˙ β, ˙ refer to do not form an orthogonal frame (see Fig. 7). Notice that, once a sequence of rotations is chosen, the sequence of matrix multiplications is fixed since matrix multiplications are not commutative.

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